NAFTA has had three major advantages. U.S. food prices were lower due to duty-free imports from Mexico. Oil imported from Canada and Mexico has prevented the rise in gas prices. NAFTA also increases trade and economic growth for all three countries. The main provisions of NAFTA required a gradual reduction in tariffs, tariffs and other barriers to trade between the three members, with some tariffs immediately and others over a 15-year period. The agreement guaranteed duty-free access for a wide range of industrial products and goods traded between the signatories. “Domestic goods” have been granted to products imported from other NAFTA countries and prohibit all governments, local or provincial, from imposing taxes or tariffs on these products. Perot eventually lost the election, and the winner, Bill Clinton, supported NAFTA, which came into effect on January 1, 1994. In its May 24, 2017 report, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) wrote that the economic impact of NAFTA on the U.S. economy was modest. In a 2015 report, the Congressional Research Service summarized several studies as follows: “In reality, NAFTA did not cause the huge job losses that critics feared, nor the significant economic benefits predicted by supporters. The overall net effect of NAFTA on the U.S.
economy appears to have been relatively small, not least because trade with Canada and Mexico accounts for a small percentage of U.S. GDP. However, there have been adjustment costs for workers and businesses as the three countries have prepared for more open trade and investment between their economies. :2 The trade statistics in this paragraph are based on trade data from the Ministry of Commerce. NAFTA`s investment provisions include exceptions in Mexico`s energy sector, in which the Mexican government reserves the right to ban foreign investment. The United States could work to improve access to Mexico`s oil sector or strengthen bilateral cooperation on energy production and security. With respect to Canada, the CFTA and NAFTA energy chapters contain a “proportionality provision.” This provision provides that an internal restriction on Canadian energy exports cannot reduce the share of exports delivered to the United States. The chapter also prohibits price discrimination between domestic consumption and exports to the United States. Some Canadians argue that this provision limits Canada`s ability to make energy policy decisions and may attempt to amend this provision. According to a 2013 Jeff Faux article published by the Economic Policy Institute, California, Texas, Michigan and other high-concentration manufacturing states were most affected by NAFTA job losses.  According to an article by EPI economist Robert Scott in 2011, approximately 682,900 U.S.